21st World Petroleum Congress

15 - 19 June, 2014, Moscow, Russia

Moscow is the state, historical and cultural capi­tal of a unique country, situated at the intersec­tion of two epochs and two civilizations: Western and Eastern. The city of Moscow unites charm and originality of monuments of Old Russian architecture with comfort of modern buildings. The world-famous «Kremlin and Red Square» attracts people thanks to its archi­tectural grace, historical heritage and holding modern cultural projects, celebration of national holidays. Many well-known artists: poets, writers, painters have fallen in love with Moscow.

Moscow's streets, her buildings, and apartments remind one about Pushkin, Dostoevsky, or Bulgakov. Moscow museums and galleries keep monu­ments of art of different epochs and generations. Unique collections and complete set of works of Russian painters are presented in the State Tretyakov Art Gallery, the State Historical Museum, the Armoury Museum, the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, and in the Moscow Museum of Modern Arts. Russia is a country of many religions. Orthodox Moscow fascinates with bright shine of mosaic gold and beauty of architectural features. Saint Basil's Cathedral, Ivan the Great Bell Tower, Kremlin cathedrals, the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, Novodevichy Convent are silent witnesses of greatness of capital. Moscow Islam is present­ed by a variety of the old and new built mosques.

The Moscow cathedral mosque which is a sym­bol of the Muslim community in Moscow is one of the most well-known mosques of Russia. Believers of Judaic religion are united in the Jewish religious communities, there are some synagogues, including a synagogue on the Poklonnaya Gora – the largest monument of the Victory in the Great Patriotic War. The French Saint Louis Cathedral and Moscow Immaculate Conception Cathedral are the Moscow centers of Catholicism. Moscow is an emerald city, attracting tired passers-by by verdure of its parks and country estates. The Moscow Boulevard Ring, the Tsaritsino, Kuskovo, Kolomenskoye estates, parks will hide in their shadow from scorching sun, chilling wind and snow. Night Moscow is a completely different, mysteri­ous and unknown city, attracting by lights of large avenues and noise of stylish bars and clubs.

Moscow is open to every one of its guests. Everyone will find here something close to heart and native. The City of Moscow will amaze, conquer and charm you in just a few days. But it will always be a mystery, a mixture of numerous cultures, hiding charm, attracting and making you go there again.

THE KREMLIN, one of the most beautiful and greatest historical and architectural monuments, is situated at the centre of Moscow. The original walls of the Moscow Kremlin were made of wood­; it was founded in the middle of the 12th cen­tury. Two centuries later Moscow became the capital of a small principality. Since that time the Kremlin has become the official Russian governor residence. Nowadays one part of Kremlin is occupied by presidential offices; this territory is closed to visitors. But during the excursion you’ll see magnificent white-stone cathedrals — The Cathedral of the Archangel, dedicat­ed to the patron saint of the rulers of Muscovy Michael, The Cathedral of the Annunciation, used as the private church of the Tsar’s family, and The Cathedral of the Assumption, the place of the consecration of rulers and church leaders.

THE ARMOURY MUSEUM is a world-known treas­ury where you can see decorative and applied works of Russian art as well as European and Eastern countries art of the 6th–20th centuries. The building that houses the Armoury Museum was con­structed by famous Russian architect Konstantin Ton in 1844-1851 as a factory for making weapons and armor. The Armoury Museum is situated on the territory of the Kremlin.

THE DIAMOND FUND was created later than the Armoury Museum and nowadays it suc­cessfully supplements it. The exhibition includes two halls. There are items of  the Tsar’s family life, Tsar’s regalia, very famous Imperial Crown of Russia made especially for Catherine II in 1762, pre-revolutionary Russian and for­eign honors in the Historical Hall. The Modern Hall holds the biggest gold and platinum bul­lions, found in Russia, mega-diamonds and contemporary jewels.

THE STATE TRETYAKOV ART GALLERY. The his­tory of Tretyakov Art Gallery began more than 150 years ago. It was Moscow merchant and patron of art Pavel Tretyakov who decided to collect works of art. He purchased with his own means works of famous Russian painters and later he  them to create a popular museum. Nowadays visitors of Gallery can see a big num­ber of works of Russian painters and sculptors of the 18th-20th centuries, a big collection of pieces of Old Russian art, drawings in its halls. The Hall «Treasury» contains works of applied art, miniatures, icons in precious-stone frames.

TSARITSINO ESTATE. Architectural and park ensemble of Tsaritsino is a remarkable historical and cultural monument of the 18th-19th cen­turies. Constructed in the Gothic style, it was intended as the residence of Catherine II. In 1776-1785 grandiose construction works super­vised by architect V.Bajenov took place on the terri­tory of the estate. The two palaces were erected. At the same time the park landscape was laid out. The Gothic buildings were notable for their combination of red bricks and white socle adorned with decorative details. However, the Empress did not appreciate Bajenov’s work and Bajenov was dismissed. In 1797, a year after Catherine’s death, construction work was stopped.

In the 19th century Tsaritsino became the place for folk festivals. New pavilions were put up. In 1860 it was decided to demolish Tsaritsino Estate, but fortunately the plans were not real­ized. In 1927 Tsaritsino was turned into a muse­um. In 2005 new reconstruction began and in 2007 the Palace and park were opened to the public.

St. BASILS CATHEDRAL. Although it’s known to everyone as St. Basil’s, this legendary building is officially called «The Cathedral of the Intercession of the Virgin by the Moat». The popular alterna­tive refers to Basil the Blessed, a Muscovite ‘holy fool’ who was buried in the Trinity Cathedral that once stood here.

The Cathedral was ordered by Ivan the Terrible to mark the 1552 capture of Kazan from Mongol forces. Nothing is known about the builders, Barma and Postnik Yakovlev, except their names and the dubious legend that Ivan had them blind­ed so that they could not create anything by comparison.

When built, the Cathedral was all white to match the white-stone Kremlin, and the onion domes were gold. In the 17th century a hip-roofed bell tower was added, the gallery and staircases were covered with vaulted roofing, and the helmeted domes were replaced with decorated ones. In 1860 during rebuilding, the Cathedral was painted.

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